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    From Sophomore Year [C] [WIP]

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    Sophie

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    From Sophomore Year [C] [WIP]

    Post by Sophie on July 27th 2011, 9:14 pm

    (Credits to Marshal Chen and everyone else who worked on this study guide!)

    This is an overview of Chemistry 10.
    (Work in progress. ;~;)

    *hint; Use the ctrl+F shortcut to find things you need.

    Chapter 1


    Atom: The building blocks of matter



    Definitions



    Atom
    Smallest unit of matter; composed of protons, neutrons, & electrons

    Element
    Pure substance composed of a single type of atom

    Molecule
    Multiple atom compounds with covalent bonds, usually made up of only nonmetals

    Ionic Compounds
    Multiple atom compounds(not molecules), containing ionic bonds, usually made up of a metal & nonmetal

    Metal
    Solid at room temperature(except Hg: liquid), reflect light good conductors of heat & electricity, high melting points, malleable, & ductile

    Non-metals
    Solids, liquids, or gases, at room temperature, poor conductors, low melting points, brittle

    Metalloids
    Exhibit properties of both metals and nonmetals

    Noble Gases
    Nonmetals that don’t chemically combine with other gases

    Isotopes
    These are atoms of the same element that have different masses

    Atomic Number
    The atomic number is the number of protons in each atom of an element.

    Mass Number
    This is how many protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an isotope.

    Avogadro's Number
    The number is 6.022x1023. This is also the number for a mole.



    Concepts



    Finding Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
    To find protons, neutrons and electrons, you will need to know the atomic number as well as the mass number. The atomic number is the number of electrons and protons. If a 1+ is seen, it also means that you need to take off an electron. Negatives give electrons. The mass number tells us how many protons and neutrons are available. You take the mass number and subtract the atomic number for neutrons.

    Finding Average Mass
    To do this for one element, you take the number of the element with one number and multiply it by the number of that element. Do the same with the element that has a different mass. Then find out how many times you multiplied it and divide the added element masses together. For example, if you have 25 marbles that weight 2g and 75 that weigh 3g, you take 2x25 and add 3 times 75. Then take that number and divide by 100 since you have that many marbles. You end up with 2.75g.

    Gram to Mole Conversions
    This is how you find out how many moles you have in a said weight of an element and vice versa.
    First you will need to know the atomic mass of that element. Divide the amount given with the amount necessary to have one mole. The answer is how many moles you have.
    To find how much mass of a substance you have given the amount of mole you have, take the amount of the substance in moles and multiply it by the atomic mass.
    To find the mass of an element when given a certain number of atoms, take the number of atoms you are given, divide by Avogadro's number, and then finally multiply by the mass of one mole.

    Chapter 2


    Chemical Bonding



    Chemical Bonding
    Mutual electrical attraction between nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds them together.
    The attractive force between atoms or ions that bind them together as a unit.

    Bonds
    Why do they form?
    By bonding, atoms decrease in potential energy. This makes more stable arrangements of matter.

    Ionic Bond
    A bond between a metal and non-metal.

    Covalent Bond
    A bond between two non-metals.

    Metallic Bond
    A bond by delocalized electrons.

    Here is a table comparing the three bonds.

    Binary Compound
    When a bond has two elements.
    Ex: NaCl

    Ternary Compound
    A bond with three or more elements involved.
    Ex: NaNO3


    Last edited by Sophie on October 25th 2011, 7:19 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    iKevinly
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    Re: From Sophomore Year [C] [WIP]

    Post by iKevinly on July 31st 2011, 12:08 am

    NERD D:< WHY ARE YOU DOING CHEM NOW D:


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    Sophie

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    Re: From Sophomore Year [C] [WIP]

    Post by Sophie on July 31st 2011, 12:09 am

    I HAVE TO FINISH UPDATING ALL THE NOTES BEFORE SCHOOL STARTS.

    Cry


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    Re: From Sophomore Year [C] [WIP]

    Post by iKevinly on July 31st 2011, 12:10 am

    D: </3 bad memories T_T


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    Re: From Sophomore Year [C] [WIP]

    Post by ZeroCyanide on August 27th 2011, 6:47 pm

    More stuff on bonding! It goes quite a bit more in-depth below, but most of it was stuff from sophomore year. Covalent Bonds!

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    Re: From Sophomore Year [C] [WIP]

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