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    Study Guide for 10.05.11 [MU]

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    Sophie

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    Study Guide for 10.05.11 [MU]

    Post by Sophie on October 4th 2011, 11:06 pm

    Grawr.
    As always, the better formatted version is attached below.

    Study Guide for 10.05.11
    Music
    Texture;
    (Ways to describe music)

    Monophonic: 1 line of music. There are no different notes, except for the changing of octaves.
    Homophonic: Different notes, but same rhythm.
    Polyphonic/Heterophonic: Many lines of music.

    Meter;
    (Time signature) (Organization of strong/weak beats)

    Duple vs. Triple
    Duple is when the meter in an even number like 2/4 or 4/4 time.
    Triple is when the meter is in three. 3/4 or 6/8 are examples of this.

    Simple vs. Compound
    2/4 and 4/4 time are both in simple meter. Three pairs of two eighth notes are examples of this, as each pair is simply subdivided from a quarter note.
    When working with compound meter, 'dots' have to be added in order to subdivide. For example, three pairs of triplets are each subdivided from a dotted quarter note. 9/6 or 6/8 time is compound.
    In a regular meter, every beat is equal. (6 8 time, for example.)
    In irregular meter, not every beat is equal. (5 8 time.)
    The top number in a meter shows the number of beats per measure.
    The bottom number shows which note gets the beat.

    Rhythm;
    (Emphasis on notes, the accents, or how the notes are split up.)
    Syncopation occurs when you are accenting beats in meter that aren’t usually accented.
    Beat;
    (Duration, tempo, one unit in the measure, pulse)

    Style;
    (Articulation, emphasis, the way you play a note.)

    Staccato: Short, fragmented, separated notes. Those are the dots on top of the notes.
    Legato: Smooth, connected, and long notes. Notes that have to be played legato have the line on top of them.
    Rinforzando: Abbreviated as rz, this emphasizes notes. Notes are marked with a > sign when expected to be played rz.

    Dynamics;
    (Self-explanatory.)

    Tempo;

    Slow: largo, larghetto, adagio
    Medium: andante, moderato
    Fast: allegro, presto, prestissimo

    Form;

    Through-composed: no repeats, no sections, everything is just THERE. 'all one piece'
    Binary: 2 parts, (AB) or AA BB
    Rounded Binary: ABA' The A' is a slight variation of A, while the B section is relatively short.
    Ternary: 3 part, ABA. The A sections are identical, but the B section is longer and is completely different music.

    Instruments;

    We will be expected to know these!

    Woodwind: flute, piccolo, clarinet, oboe, saxophone, bassoon
    Brass: french horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba
    String: violin, viola, cello, bass
    Other stuff: voice, piano, pipe organ, harpsichord, percussion

    Look a little hard? Haha, try the cheat sheet!

    Aerophone: vibrating air. (woodwinds, alto sax, flute, etc...)
    Membranophone: vibrating membranes. (timpani, snare, drums, etc...)
    Chordophone: vibrating string. (violin, harp, piano, etc...)
    Idiophone: struck vibration. (cymbals, xylophone, maracas, etc...)
    Electrophone: synthesized sound

    Pitch;
    Pitches ranges from A-G
    Your goal is to be able to eventually relate all pitches to the piano by ear.
    Diatonic conjunct motion happens when one note moves to the next.
    A-B or B-C or E-F
    B#-Cb or G#-A

    Chromatic conjunct motion
    The note moves directly to the next key on the piano.
    C-C# or D-Db or Eb-E##

    Disjunct motion
    Notes aren’t next to each other.
    A-F or C-G

    Accents;
    Is the stress on a note, emphasis, tonal dress, or the weight. There are different ways to express accents.
    Agogic: pertaining to time
    Note that is longer than the rest
    Doesn’t necessarily need to have a mark
    Slight hesitation (or a pause before a note)

    Tonic: pertaining to pitch
    Does not need an accent mark
    Note that is higher than the rest

    Dynamic: pertaining to dynamics
    For example, a fp mark, or a > mark under a note

    Syncopation: accenting beat that aren’t normally accented

    Intervals;
    They are named by number and quality.
    1-8: Number
    d, m, M, A, P: Quality

    Perfect Intervals
    P1, P4, P5, P8
    P1 and P8 are the same note, except P8 is an octave above the original.
    P4 has four notes between the two. P5 has five, respectively.
    Note that these intervals can only be diminished(d), perfect(P), or augmented(A).

    Other Intervals
    M2, M3, M6, M7
    These are the other intervals.
    Note that these intervals can be diminished(d), minor (m), major(M), or augmented(A).

    In summary:
    Top number 1 4 5 8 2 3 6 7

    When the top note is in the major key, the signature of bottom note interval is… P
    P+1/2 is augmented.
    P-1/2 is diminished M
    M+1/2 is augmented
    M-1/2 is minor
    M-1 is diminished
    m-1/2 is diminished

    You can find intervals by taking the scale of the bottom note, then seeing if the interval fits. If it fits, then it is major/perfect.
    Taking off the accidentals first will make this process easier.
    Interval Recognition;
    The songs below sound like the intervals listed next to them:
    Jaws
    m2
    Happy Birthday
    M2
    Greensleeves
    m3
    When the Saints
    M3
    Here Comes the Bride
    P4
    Maria
    T or A4
    Starwars
    P5
    Entertainer
    m6
    NBC
    M6
    West-Side Story
    m7
    Almost an Octave
    M7

    Interval Inversion;
    The bottom note is brought to the top of the interval.
    The numbers of the intervals will always add up to nine.
    P stays P
    M turns m
    m turns M
    d turns A
    A turns d

    Scales;
    A collection of ascending and descending pitches
    It is used as a way of organizing all the notes in a melody or harmony.
    Diatonic scales are a collection of 1/2, whole, and occasionally 1 1/2 step tones.
    Major
    Change nothing. The key signature will do this for you.
    Minor
    Natural: Change nothing. The key signature will do this for you.
    Harmonic: Raise the 7th tone.
    Melodic: Raise the 6th and 7th tone going up, and lower them again going down.
    The melodic scale is essentially the major scale going up, and the natural minor scale coming down.
    Parallel scales: Major/minor scale pairs with the same tonic/starting note.
    C Major to c minor
    Relative scales: Major/minor scale pairs with the same number of sharps/flats
    C Major to a minor
    You find this by going down a minor third from the major scale.

    Finding Key:
    Take the last sharp and go up a half step to find the key for sharps.
    Take the second to last flat to find the key for flats.

    Scale Degrees;
    1: Tonic
    2: Supertonic
    3: Mediant
    4: Subdominant
    5: Submediant
    7: Leading tone/Subtonic
    When 1/2 below tonic, is leading tone. When whole step, is subtonic.

    Circle of Fifths;
    Memorize it.
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